Patients with biphasic mesothelioma have both epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells. The prognosis of biphasic mesothelioma depends on how many cells are epithelioid and how many are sarcomatoid. The more epithelioid cells, the greater the number of treatment options, resulting in a better prognosis.
Understanding Biphasic Mesothelioma
Epithelioid cells grow faster but stick together. This stops the cells from spreading quickly. Sarcomatoid cells spread to other organs faster than epithelioid cells. About 33% of patients have biphasic mesothelioma.
Pathology of Biphasic Mesothelioma
Pathologists must be able to identify both kinds of cells. They can estimate how many cells are epithelioid and how many are sarcomatoid.
The more epithelioid cells visible under the microscope, the better the patient's prognosis. The cells are more likely to have already metastasized if more cells are sarcomatoid.
Signs and Symptoms of Biphasic Mesothelioma
Symptoms alone are not always enough to cause suspicion of mesothelioma. Doctors may suspect mesothelioma if there is a known history of asbestos exposure.
Typical signs and symptoms in biphasic patients include:
- Chest or abdominal pain
- Fluid around the abdomen, heart, or pleural space
- Shortness of breath
- Unexplained fever
- Unexplained weight loss
If you have recently noticed these symptoms, schedule an appointment with your doctor to discuss your health condition. If you have been exposed to asbestos and suspect you may have mesothelioma, request our free checklist of questions to ask your doctor during your upcoming visit.
Diagnosis of Biphasic Mesothelioma
The diagnosis of biphasic mesothelioma begins with imaging tests. Doctors may order X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen and/or the chest.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scans are sometimes done to locate metastases. In a PET scan, the patient is given radioactive glucose. Cancer cells absorb this substance faster than healthy cells. The scan then detects the areas where the radioactive material gathered.
Doctors will take a biopsy if imaging scans reveal potential tumors. There are several possible biopsy procedures. Thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy take tissue samples from the chest. Laparoscopy takes tissue from the abdomen. Most biopsies use a camera placed through a small incision to locate tumors.
Pathologists are specialists in identifying cell types. They will examine your biopsy under a microscope. If the diagnosis is difficult, they may use immunohistochemistry. This procedure uses special stains that attach to specific cell types. This can help pathologists distinguish between an epithelioid and a biphasic cell type.
It is often difficult to draw the line between epithelioid mesothelioma and biphasic mesothelioma,” the authors of a 2017 study said. However, separation of biphasic mesothelioma from epithelioid mesothelioma is important because therapeutic option and prognosis are different between two subtypes of mesothelioma.
Diagnosing biphasic mesothelioma can be difficult. Biopsy samples only observe a small piece of a tumor at a time, while epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells may be far apart on a biopsy sample.
Pathologists may misdiagnose biphasic mesothelioma if they only see one cell type under the microscope.
Larger samples give a better view of the overall cell landscape and can help pathologists make a more accurate diagnosis. However, If the doctor doesn’t suspect biphasic mesothelioma, large samples may never be collected.
In some mesothelioma cases, people only find out they have biphasic mesothelioma after surgery. Surgery provides the best access possible to many tumors, and surgically removed tumors are often collected and analyzed to reconfirm a patient’s diagnosis.
After your doctor makes a concrete diagnosis, he can prescribe the most appropriate treatment for you.
Treatment of Biphasic Mesothelioma
Biphasic mesothelioma treatment is highly individualized. The stage of your disease is also important.
Stage 1 and 2 patients with more epithelioid cells often get surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.
In stage 3 and 4, the disease may already have spread too far throughout the body. If it has spread too far, potentially curative surgery cannot be performed. These patients may have palliative surgery to reduce symptoms or to have a better quality of life.
Patients with more sarcomatoid cells aren't usually eligible for surgery. But doctors may consider some patients in earlier stages for surgery.
There are newer treatments out there for patients with biphasic therapy. Some of these include intensity-modulated radiation therapy, photodynamic therapy and gene therapy.
Those with more sarcomatoid type cells get traditional chemotherapy and radiation. Treatment may also focus more on investigational therapies.
Getting the correct diagnosis can help determine which treatments will be more effective. Get a second opinion if you want to make sure your diagnosis is correct. You can also join a clinical trial. These trials offer experimental therapies to patients who qualify.
Potential Treatment Options for Advanced Biphasic Mesothelioma
- Chemotherapy for the chest or abdominal cavity to prevent fluid buildup and shrink tumors
- Clinical trials with combinations of chemotherapy, radiation, and experimental therapies
- Cytoreduction to remove tumors in the abdomen
- Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors for tumors that cannot be removed by surgery
- Pleurectomy with decortication as a way to relieve symptoms
- Radiation therapy to shrink tumors and relieve pain
- Surgery to drain fluid from the chest, improving quality of life
- Targeted therapy with bevacizumab to cut off tumor growth
- Traditional chemotherapy with Alimta and cisplatin
Prognosis of Biphasic Mesothelioma
The prognosis of biphasic mesothelioma depends on the ratio of epithelioid to sarcomatoid cells. The average life expectancy of a patient with biphasic mesothelioma is 8-21 months. Those who have more epithelioid cells often live longer.
Next Steps for Veterans with Biphasic Mesothelioma Cell Types
The first step for veterans with biphasic mesothelioma is to confirm their diagnosis. It is possible that your doctor missed something or gathered a biopsy from an area higher in sarcomatoid cells.
It is critical to ensure that your treatment is correct for the cancer cells in your body. You can always request your pathology report, have your doctor explain your diagnosis, or seek a second opinion.
It is the right of every patient to get a second opinion. You will find that good doctors will encourage you to get another opinion. You can ask a mesothelioma specialist within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), or look elsewhere if you were diagnosed at a VA facility.
Second opinions can present you with new treatment options. If the second diagnosis shows fewer sarcomatoid cells, you could have new treatment options. Your doctor may also give you a better prognosis. Learn more about second opinions.